11Jun
 

Introduction

  • Infertility and reproductive issues are growing health concerns around the world.
  • Common Reproductive disorders and potential links to environmental exposures
  •  How various prenatal environmental exposures may affect reproduction in later life

Definition (WHO)

Health is more than absence of illness it is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being.

Reproductive health also represents a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of reproductive diseases or alterations. It involves all of the reproductive processes, functions and systems at all stages of human life.

This definition implies that people
are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life and that they have the
capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do
so.

Introduction to male
reproductive health

  • Disorders
    related to male reproductive health may develop during fetal development,
    childhood, adolescence, or adulthood
  • There
    are multiple causes for alterations in the male reproductive functioning
  • There
    is increasing evidence of involvement of environmental exposures on the
    deteriorating male reproduction health since many decades

Overview of male reproductive health outcomes due to
environmental pollution

 In newborns

  • Hypospadias
    and Cryptorchidism
  • Reduced
    anogenital distance

Identified in puberty or later

  • Infertility
  • Semen
    quality
  • Sperm
    motility/function
  • Testicular
    cancer
  • Testicular
    Dysgenesis Syndrome
  • Prostate
    cancer

Male infertility

  • An
    important consequence of exposure to reproductive toxicants is infertility
  •  Males
    produce sperm cells throughout their lives thus there is long-term
    susceptibility window for environmental exposures

Environmental Factors affecting male infertility:

  • Air pollutants
  • Drinking water pollutants
  • Persistent organochlorines
  •  Tri-halomethanes
  •  Pesticides
  • Electromagnetic radiation
  • Heat (drivers)

SEMEN QUALITY
Semen quality is used as measure of male fertility

Semen parameters include:

  • motility
  • volume
  • pH
  • concentration
  • morphology
  • white blood cell count
     

Various toxicants are
suspected to affect semen quality

During development

  • Cigarette
    Smoke
  • Polybrominateddiphenyl
    ethers 
  • Bisphenol
    A

In adulthood

  • Cigarette
    smoke
  • Solvents
  • Phthalates
  • Organochlorine
    –pesticides
  • Bisphenol
    A
  • Cadmium,
    lead
  • Dibromochloropropane
  • Polychlorinated
    biphenyls 

Conclusion

  • Information on these exposures and their health effects is important for health care providers because studies demonstrate that health care would be dramatically improved and medical care costs reduced if environmental pollution and chemical exposure were mitigated.
  • An increased awareness of the effects of environmental contaminants on patient health will allow health care providers to offer more timely and appropriate care, better understand potential causes of reproductive problems, better track and study reproductive outcomes, and protect patients from preventable harm.

Conclusion: As low levels of air pollutants, good diet ( as people are eating less junk food) and reduced stress, nowadays we are observing more of normal semen reports.

 The time to act
is now:

Creating healthier environment for healthier people .

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