PCOS

  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder in women that intervenes with ovulation (growth and release of eggs from the ovary).
  • It’s the most common cause of infertility amongst women.
  • PCOS occurs when a woman’s body overproduces androgens, the sex hormones.
  • The hormonal imbalance prevents fluid-filled sacs in the ovaries from breaking open and releasing mature eggs.
  • The fluid-filled sacs bunch together, causing multiple tiny cysts.

Symptoms:
The most common symptoms are:

  • Weight gain and trouble losing weight.
  • Extra hair on the face and body. The women often have more hair on the chest, belly, back and get thicker and darker facial hair.
  • Thinning of hair on the scalp.
  • Irregular periods. Often the women suffering from PCOS often have less than nine periods a year. Some women have no periods, and some face very heavy bleeding.
  • Fertility problems. Many women who have PCOS have trouble in conceiving (infertility).

Endometriosis

  • Endometrial tissue is the lining tissue or inner epithelial layer that grows within the uterus to protect a fertilized egg early in pregnancy. Endometriosis is a state involving an abnormal growth pattern of the endometrial tissue outside your uterus.
  • The masses of such tissue that grow outside your uterus are called implants.
  • When you have endometriosis, the implants of tissue that grow outside your uterus act just like the tissue lining your uterus.
  • During the menstrual cycle, the tissue gets thicker, then breaks down and bleed.
  • But the implants are outside your uterus, so the blood cannot flow out of the body.
  • The implants can get irritated and painful. Sometimes they form scar tissue or cysts (fluid-filled sacs). Scar tissue may make it hard to get pregnant.

Symptoms:
The most common symptoms are:

  • Abnormal bleeding.
  • Trouble in getting pregnant (infertility).

Tubal Factor Infertility

  • A fertilized egg goes through a fallopian tube to the uterus in a normal pregnancy. The egg attaches in the uterus and starts to grow.
  • However, in an ectopic pregnancy also known as tubal pregnancy, the fertilized egg embeds someplace besides the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube.
  • In some cases, the egg implants in an ovary, the cervix, or the belly.
  • An ectopic pregnancy is often caused due to damage to the fallopian tube.
  • A fertilized egg may have difficulty in passing through a damaged tube, causing the egg to implant and grow in the tube.

Symptoms:
The most common symptoms are:

  • If you are already pregnant and experiencing symptoms such as extreme pelvic or belly pain or vaginal bleeding, it could mean that it is a tubal pregnancy.

Recurrent Miscarriage

  • The loss of a fetus before the completion of the 20 weeks of pregnancy is known as a miscarriage.
  • ‘Spontaneous Abortion’ is the medical term used for a miscarriage.
  • Mainly miscarriages happen because the fertilized egg in the uterus does not develop normally.
  • It does not occur due to stress, exercise, or sex.
  • The risk of miscarriage is lower after the first 12 weeks of the pregnancy.

Symptoms:
The most common symptoms are:

  • Bleeding which progresses from light to heavy
  • Severe cramps
  • Abdominal pain
  • Fever
  • Weakness
  • Back pain

Secondary Infertility

  • Secondary infertility is a condition when a couple who have already naturally conceived a child, face difficulties while trying to become pregnant again.
  • Several lifestyle-related determinants such as injuries or diseases, smoking, drinking, and obesity; which may have happened since the previous pregnancy, could impact productivity the second or third time around.

Irregular Menstrual Cycle

  • An irregular menstrual cycle which is caused by hormonal imbalances affects fertility amongst women.
  • As eggs are not produced regularly on account of irregular ovulation, planning a pregnancy is not possible.

Fibroids, Polyps, and Adenomyosis

  • The growths such as adenomyosis, polyps, and fibroids on the reproductive organs of a woman can cause infertility.
  • The condition in which the inner lining of the uterus breaks through the muscle wall of the uterus is called Adenomyosis. It can cause lower menstrual cramps, abdominal pressure, bloating before menstrual periods and can result in heavy periods.
  • The lumps that grow on your uterus (on the inside, on the outside, or in the wall of your uterus) are called Fibroids.

The smooth, red, finger-shaped growths in the cervix, the passage between the uterus and the vagina are called Polyps.