Obstructive Azoospermia

  • Obstructive Azoospermia is a condition which there’s no sperm in a man’s semen.
  • The condition may be because of a blockage in the male reproductive tract.
  • It is one of the many causes of Infertility in men.

The main causes of obstructive azoospermia include:

  • Sexually transmitted diseases,
  • Scar tissue due to injuries,
  • Congenital or genetic conditions,
  • Previous surgeries.

Non-Obstructive Azoospermia

  • Non-obstructive Azoospermia is when there’s no sperm in the semen because of abnormal sperm production.
  • The pituitary hormone stimulates sperm production in the testicles, and if this hormone is absent or present in tiny amounts, it affects sperm production in males.

The leading causes of Non-obstructive Azoospermia can include:

  • Hormonal problems,
  • Testicular failure,
  • Varicocele,
  • Varicose veins in the testicles.

Retrograde Ejaculation

The entry of semen into the bladder rather than going out through the urethra during ejaculation is known as Retrograde Ejaculation.


  • The urethra discharges little or no semen during the time of the male sexual climax (during ejaculation)
  • Possible infertility
  • Cloudy urine after sexual climax

The leading causes of Retrograde Ejaculation can include:

  • Diabetes,
  • Intake of medication (such as drugs used to treat high blood pressure),
  • Injury or past surgeries.


  • Oligospermia or Oligozoospermia is when the semen has a lower concentration of sperm than normal.
  • It is one of the leading causes of infertility in men.
  • Quite often a low concentration of sperm also means decreased sperm morphology or motility.

The leading causes of Oligospermia can include:

  • Poor health,
  • Aging, testicular trauma,
  • Varicocele,
  • Chemotherapy


  • The enlarged varicose veins that develop in the scrotum and prevent blood from flowing properly are known as Varicoceles.
  • These are found in 15% of all men and up to 40% of men who are being evaluated for infertility.

Autoimmune problems

  • Sometimes, the immune system mistakenly targets sperm cells and treats them as if they were an alien virus.
  • The sperm can get damaged as a result.

Sexual problems

  • Premature Ejaculation and Erectile Dysfunction (impotence) can obviously have an effect on fertility.
  • Also, impotence may be a side effect of certain medications such as antidepressants.
  • It is one of the very common causes of infertility in men.

The leading causes of Oligospermia can include:

  • Psychological problems such as
  • anxiety
  • guilt
  • low self-esteem
  • Physical problems such as
  • diabetes
  • high blood pressure
  • high cholesterol
  • heart disease

Genetic diseases

  • Although it’s rare, genetic illnesses such as chromosomal disorders or cystic fibrosis can cause infertility.

Sexually transmitted diseases or other infections

  • Genital infections such as gonorrhea and chlamydia can cause infertility in men.

Blockages, birth defects, or physical damage

  • Sometimes, men are born with abnormalities that prevent sperm from getting into the semen or blockages in parts of the testicle.
  • Physical trauma to the prostate, urethra, and testicles can also result in fertility problems.

Hormonal problems

  • Certain hormonal imbalances in the pituitary and thyroid glands, for instance, can cause infertility.

Other Causes of Infertility in Men

  • Excessive exercise may lead to the excess release of steroid hormones which can affect fertility.
  • Stress
  • Obesity
  • Drinking alcohol, use of drugs such as marijuana and cocaine, smoking, and taking steroids can decrease sperm counts.
  • Environmental hazards and exposure to toxins; radioactive substances, lead, radiation, pesticides, mercury, and heavy metals may affect fertility.
  • Heat; though the effect is commonly temporary, high temperatures in the testicles could reduce sperm production. The high temperature could result from wearing clothing that’s too tight and traps heat, by taking too many hot baths or saunas, or regular bike riding.